Normativa para la Lista de Equipos Mínimos (MEL)

La MEL es requerida por la Normativa de Operaciones para Transporre Aéreo Comercial

ACTUALIZADO: Ver

El marco normativo en España a día de hoy (2011) está definido por la Comisión Europea, EASA, JAA y AESA (esto cambiará en Abril de 2012).
Veremos las líneas generales de la normativa estrechando el círculo al entorno Europeo actual, y cómo evolucionará éste próximamente

Los requerimientos OPS 1.030 y JAR OPS 3.030 (idénticos) obligan al operador a disponer de una MEL aprobada. El RD 1762/2007 reitera esta obligación pero la amplía a los Trabajos Aéreos. Debido a las dificultades que esto ocasionó, posteriormente AESA emitió una nota en la que esta obligación para Trabajos Aéreos se podía obviar.

EU OPS 1.030 Listas de Equipo Mínimo: Responsabilidades del operador

a) El operador elaborará, para cada avión, una lista de equipo mínimo (MEL), que será aprobada por la Autoridad y se basará, si la hubiera, en la Lista Maestra de Equipo Mínimo (MMEL) aceptada por la Autoridad, sin ser menos restrictiva que ésta.

b) El operador solo podrá explotar aviones de conformidad con lo prescrito en la MEL, a menos que la Autoridad permita otra cosa. En ningún caso se permitirá una operación que infrinja las restricciones de la MMEL.

JAR-OPS 3.030 Listas de Equipo Mínimo: Responsabilidades del Operador

(a) El operador establecerá, para cada helicóptero, una lista de equipo mínimo (MEL) aprobada por la Autoridad. Esta se basará y no será menos restrictiva que la lista maestra de equipo mínimo (MMEL) (si existe) aceptada por la Autoridad.

(b) El operador no operará un helicóptero si no es de acuerdo con lo prescrito en la MEL, a menos que así lo permita la Autoridad. Estos permisos en ningún caso permitirán operaciones fuera de las restricciones de la MMEL.

 

RD 1762/2007:

Artículo 1:Objeto y ámbito de aplicación.

Este real decreto tiene por objeto la determinación de los requisitos exigibles para la utilización, aprobación o, en su caso, aceptación de los documentos denominados lista maestra de equipo mínimo (MMEL), y lista de equipo mínimo (MEL), de las aeronaves civiles dedicadas al transporte aéreo comercial y a los trabajos aéreos que operen en España.

Artículo 6:Obligaciones.

1. El operador establecerá para cada aeronave, una lista de equipo mínimo (MEL) que deberá ser aprobada por la Dirección General de Aviación Civil. Esta lista estará basada, y no será menos restrictiva, en la lista maestra de equipo mínimo (MMEL) que le corresponda aprobada o aceptada, en su caso, por la Dirección General de Aviación Civil.
2. […]

La próxima normativa EASA para 2012 modificará los Requerimientos MMEL/MEL

La Opinion 04/2011 (01/06/2011), define la estructura definitiva de las Implementing Rules para Operaciones de EASA.Se incluye:

 

  • Definiciones,
  • Part-ARO (Requierimientos de Operaciones para la Autoridad),
  • Part ORO (Requerimientos de OPeraciones para las Organizaciones),
  • Part CAT (A,H) (Transporte Aéreo Comercia, Aviones y Helicópteros), y
  • Part SPA (Aprobaciones especiales)

 

Los requerimientos equivalentes al EU OPS 1.030 y JAR OPS 3.030 aparecen en la Parte CAT (Transporte Aéreo Comercial), con ciertas diferencias

CAT.IDE.A.105 Minimum equipment for flight

A flight shall not be commenced when any of the aeroplane’s instruments, items of equipment or functions required for the intended flight are inoperative or missing unless:
(a) the aeroplane is operated in accordance with the operator’s MEL; or
(b) the operator is approved by the competent authority to operate the aeroplane within the constraints of the master minimum equipment list (MMEL).

CAT.IDE.H.105 Minimum equipment for flight

A flight shall not be commenced when any of the helicopter instruments, items of equipment or functions required for the intended flight are inoperative or missing, unless:
(a) the helicopter is operated in accordance with the operator´s MEL; or
(b) the operator is approved by the competent authority to operate the helicopter within the constraints of the MMEL.

Los requisitos para desarrollar la MEL se indican en los requerimientos de Operaciones para las Organizaciones (Part ORO) y aparecen nuevos requerimientos para las Autoridades (Part ARO).

ARO.205 Minimum equipment list approval

(a) When receiving an application for initial approval of a minimum equipment list (MEL) or an amendment thereof, from an operator, the competent authority shall assess each item affected, to verify compliance with the applicable requirements before issuing the approval.
(b) The competent authority shall approve the operator’s procedure, for the extension of the applicable rectification intervals B, C and D, if the conditions specified in ORO.MLR.105 (f) are demonstrated by the operator and verified by the competent authority.
(c) The competent authority shall approve, on a case-by-case basis, the operation of an aircraft outside the constraints of the MEL but within the constraints of the master minimum equipment list (MMEL), if the conditions specified in ORO.MLR.105 are demonstrated by the operator and verified by the competent authority.

 

ORO.MLR.105 Minimum equipment list (MEL)

(a) A minimum equipment list (MEL) shall be established as specified under 8.a.3. of Annex IV to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008, based on the relevant Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Commission Regulation (EC) No 1702/2003.
(b) The MEL and any amendment thereto shall be approved by the competent authority. For non-commercial operations with complex motor-powered aircraft registered in a third country, the operator shall obtain an approval for the MEL from the State of Registry of the aircraft.
(c) The operator shall amend the MEL after any applicable change to the MMEL within the acceptable timescales.

(d) In addition to the list of items, the MEL shall contain:

(1) a preamble, including guidance and definitions for flight crews and maintenance personnel using the MEL;

(2) the revision status of the MMEL upon which the MEL is based and the revision status of the MEL; and

(3) the scope, extent and purpose of the MEL.

(e) The operator shall:

(1) establish rectification intervals for each inoperative instrument, item of equipment or function listed in the MEL. The rectification interval in the MEL shall not be less restrictive than the corresponding rectification interval in the MMEL;

(2) establish an effective rectification programme; and

(3) only operate the aircraft after expiry of the rectification interval specified in the MEL, when:

(i) the defect has been rectified; or(ii) the rectification interval has been extended in accordance with (f).

(f) Subject to approval of the competent authority, or the State of Registry of the aircraft where applicable according to (b), the operator may use a procedure for the one time extension of the categories B, C and D rectification intervals, provided that:

(1) the extension of the rectification interval is within the scope of the MMEL for the aircraft type;

(2) the extension of the rectification interval is, as a maximum, of the same duration as the rectification interval specified in the MEL;

(3) the rectification interval extension is not used as a normal means of conducting MEL item rectification and is used only when events beyond the control of the operator have precluded rectification;

(4) a description of specific duties and responsibilities for controlling extensions is established by the operator;

(5) the competent authority is notified of any extension of the applicable rectification interval; and
(6) a plan to accomplish the rectification at the earliest opportunity is established.

(g) The operator shall establish the operational and maintenance procedures referenced in the MEL taking into account the operational and maintenance procedures referenced in the MMEL. These procedures shall be part of the operator’s manuals or the MEL.

(h) The operator shall amend the operational and maintenance procedures referenced in the MEL after any applicable change to the operational and maintenance procedures referenced in the MMEL.

(i) Unless otherwise specified in the MEL, the operator shall accomplish:

(1) the operational procedures referenced in the MEL, when planning for and/or operating with the listed item inoperative; and(2) the maintenance procedures referenced in the MEL, prior to operating with the listed item inoperative.

(j) Subject to a specific case-by-case approval by the competent authority, or the State of Registry of the aircraft where applicable according to (b), the operator may operate an aircraft with inoperative instruments, items of equipment or functions outside the constraints of the MEL but within the constraints of the MMEL, provided that:

(1) the concerned instruments, items of equipment or functions are within the scope of the MMEL as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Commission Regulation (EC) No 1702/2003;(2) the approval is not used as a normal means of conducting operations outside the constraints of the approved MEL and is used only when events beyond the control of the operator have precluded the MEL compliance;

(3) a description of specific duties and responsibilities for controlling the operation of the aircraft under such approval is established by the operator; and
(4) a plan to rectify the inoperative instruments, items of equipment or functions or to return operating the aircraft under the MEL constraints at the earliest opportunity is established.

Para Operaciones No-TAC, Part-NCC y Part NCO, también se incluye la existencia de MEL aprobada por la autoridad (con diferencias notables para NCO).(Esto es un CRD, el período de consulta finalizó el 30 de octubre)

NCC.IDE.A.105 Minimum equipment for flight

A flight shall not be commenced when any of the aeroplane’s instruments, items of equipment, or functions required for the intended flight are inoperative or missing unless:
(a) the aeroplane is operated in accordance with the operator’s MEL; or
(b) the operator is approved by the competent authority to operate the aeroplane within the constraints of the master minimum equipment list (MMEL).
(c) the aeroplane is subject to a permit to fly issued in accordance with the applicable airworthiness requierements.

 

NCC.IDE.H.105 Minimum equipment for flight

A flight shall not be commenced when any of the helicopter´s instruments, items of equipment or functions required for the intended flight are inoperative or missing, unless:
(a) the helicopter is operated in accordance with the operator´s MEL; or
(b) the operator is approved by the competent authority to operate the helicopter within the constraints of the MMEL.
(c) the aeroplane is subject to a permit to fly issued in accordance with the applicable airworthiness requierements.

La Part NCO no obliga a disponer de MEL aprobada, pero tampoco excluye esta posibilidad

NCO.GEN.155 Minimum equipment list

A minimum equipment list (MEL) may be established as specified under 8.a.3. of Annex IV to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008. In that case, the MEL and any amendment thereto shall be approved by the competent authority or, in case of aircraft registered in a third country, the State of Registry.

AMC1-NCO.GEN.155: Content and approval of the MEL Idéntico al ORO.MLR.105, con la única excepción del apartado (j) (operaciones fuera de la MEL), que aquí no se incluye
(NOTA: la Parte ORO es aplicable a CAT y NCC pero no a NCO)

NCO.IDE.A.105 Minimum equipment for flight

A flight shall not be commenced when any of the aeroplane’s instruments, items of equipment, or functions required for the intended flight are inoperative or missing unless:

(a) the aeroplane is operated in accordance with the MEL, if established; or
(b) the aeroplane is subject to a permit to fly issued in accordance with the applicable airworthiness requierements.

 

NCO.IDE.H.105 Minimum equipment for flight

A flight shall not be commenced when any of the helicopter´s instruments, items of equipment or functions required for the intended flight are inoperative or missing, unless:
(a) the helicopter is operated in accordance with the MEL, if established; or
(b) the aeroplane is subject to a permit to fly issued in accordance with the applicable airworthiness requierements.

Existe tambien el NCO.IDE.B.105, idéntico, para Globos

Pero eso no es todo, el concepto OSC / OSD (Operational Suitability Certification / Data), relación del TC Holder con operaciones de su producto hace que EASA desarrolle las especificaciones CS-MMEL. Tres requerimientos para Certificación OSC: Syllabus Training pilotos, cabin crew y mantenimiento, incluyendo la MMEL. El TC lleva asociado el OSD. Publicada NPA 2011-11 en junio con CS-MMEL, con guías para la MMEL y adaptando la TGL-26 para la MMEL.

El uso de la TGL-26 en la MEL en ocasiones puede no ser apropiado, por eso desaparece en la nueva normativa, y se integra en la CS-MMEL como guía para la elaboración de la MMEL, con el fin de obtener la aprobación del OSD en el proceso de Certificación.

– MMEL Guidance Book created to help standardisation of entries for common items of equipment.

– Replaces TGL26, but at MMEL level instead of MEL level.
– Applicant would need to show that (O) & (M) are appropriately validated.
– Possibility will exist for DOA holders to approve minor changes to their MMEL under their DOA.
– All major changes to the MMEL will be reviewed by the EASA MMEL sub-group.
– Catch-up process are available to allow existing MMEL, that have not been through an OEB process, to be converted to an EASA MMEL

Para más información sobre el desarrollo de la normativa de EASA, en el ámbito de operaciones es imprescindible visitar:

EASA Flight Standards Website

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